Effect of oral black raspberry administration on oral cell DNA adducts in smokers
This is an intervention study that will examine the effect of black raspberry lozenges on mouth cell DNA damage in smokers.
Following one week of being in the study you will be given black raspberry lozenges to take 5 times daily for 8 weeks. Afterwards you will participate in the study for an additional 4 weeks for a ‘wash-out’ period where no lozenges are given. During study visits you will be asked to complete questionnaires, provide a urine sample, and a mouth cell sample by brushing the inside of your cheek with a toothbrush. You will smoke as you normally do throughout the study. You will record cigarette and lozenge use every day. You will complete 2 phone call interviews about your 24-hour food intake during the beginning and the end of the study.
21-75 years of age
No quit attempt in the prior 30 days
No plans to quit smoking in next 4 months
Willingness and ability to attend 8 visits over 13 weeks
Women who are pregnant or nursing
Use of marijuana or other illegal drugs
Any known allergy to raspberries
Heavy drinking (>4 drinks/day, 5 days/wk)