Insulitis, Inflammation, Dietary intake and Omega-3 Biostatus of Youth with Partial Remission of Type 1 Diabetes
Only 50% of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) recover insulin secretion function after 3 months of initial diagnosis, and this phase is called partial remission (PR) of T1D, also called "Honeymoon phase". During this PR phase of T1D, patients recover the ability to secrete more than 50% of their insulin secretion function. This phase of PR typically lasts no longer than 6 or up to12 months, and has been frequently defined as requiring exogenous insulin below 0.5 units per kilogram per day, and hemoglobin A1C is typically below 7.5%. Most recently the use of a coefficient called IDAA1C ≤ 9 has became more accepted as the methodology to determine the development of partial clinical remission of T1D (honeymoon phase). Prior data published by the SEARCH study (national epidemiological study) showed that youth with prolonged honeymoon phase had higher intake of omega -3 fatty acids, vitamin D intake and leucine intake than those youth without prolonged honeymoon phase of T1D. Currently, there are not approved medications to prolong this phase of partial remission of type 1 diabetes, however inducing PR in youth with T1D could potentially decrease the risk of multi-organ damage caused by chronic severe hyperglycemia associated to the chronic hyperglycemia related to T1D. We aim to perform a case- multiple control study between youth with prolonged partial remission phase of T1D after one year of diagnosis, and compare these youths with multiple controls matched by age, gender, race, and puberty stage to study the potential protective factors associated to the development of prolonged partial remission of T1D.
Participants will be approached at their routine Pediatric diabetes clinic appointment. If participants agrees to be in the research, informed consent/assent will be reviewed and signed by all parties. Participant's parent/guardian will be asked to complete a questionnaire. The participant's glucose machine/insulin pump will be downloaded for study purposes. Participant will undergo a fingerstick and a blood draw to collect specific lab values as outlined in the consent.
Age 1-17 years old, any gender
Attendance to the Pediatric diabetes clinic at Penn State Health in Hershey, PA
Most recent hemoglobin A1C below 7.5%
History of seafood allergies and/or milk/dairy related allergies
Medical conditions (such as severe cerebral palsy, etc.) that could make patients unable to communicate with the study team
Existence of other autoimmune diseases in addition to T1D requiring regular treatment with immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory treatment
Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, monogenic diabetes (MODY), secondary diabetes, pregnancy, compromised kidney function, or liver diseases